O Duelo do WhatsApp: Privacidade ou Interesse Público?

Sociedade de Advogados

O Duelo do WhatsApp: Privacidade ou Interesse Público?

30/07/2020 Sem categoria 16149

Parece que o caos se instala quando os serviços do WhatsApp ficam suspensos por decisão judicial, pelo menos para a grande maioria das pessoas. De fato, o serviço oferecido pelo aplicativo já se tornou tão comum, que tem sido utilizado até para contatos comerciais; e em alguns casos, é uma ferramenta indispensável de trabalho.
A mais recente foi  de uma juíza de Duque de Caxias no Rio de Janeiro, que fez o aplicativo ficar suspenso por cerca de cinco horas no último dia 19 de julho (terça), sendo liberado por decisão do Supremo Tribunal Federal. A suspensão ocorreu depois da empresa dona do aplicativo, informar que não poderia colaborar com investigações por incapacidade técnica.


Segundo a fundamentação da magistrada, o que, ‘interessantemente’ (criei o termo…rs … mentira… kkk) se pedia era a “desabilitação da chave de criptografia, com a interceptação do fluxo de dados, com o desvio em tempo real em uma das formas sugeridas pelo Ministério Público, além do encaminhamento das mensagens já recebidas pelo usuário (…) antes de implementada a criptografia.”


Convenhamos que a criptografia usada pelo aplicativo, chamada de “ponta-a-ponta”, como o nome sugere, protege todo o trajeto da comunicação entre as pontas (os participantes) de uma conversa. Com ela, nenhum intermediário, nem mesmo o WhatsApp, deve ser capaz de interferir na conversa e obter o conteúdo que foi compartilhado.
Essa solução funciona a partir da troca de chaves criptográficas; a tecnologia responsável pelo processo que embaralha e codifica cada mensagem individualmente. A vantagem desse tipo de criptografia é que o processo é invisível e não exige nenhuma ação por parte dos usuários: as chaves são recebidas e utilizadas automaticamente.
 Dessa forma, o sistema de criptografia usado no WhatsApp não é “simétrico”, porque nele a chave usada para codificar uma mensagem no envio não é a mesma usada para decifrá-la quando ela é recebida. A chave capaz de decifrar as mensagens é diferente para cada usuário e fica somente no aparelho de telefone, não sendo transmitida ao WhatsApp. É por isso que a empresa não tem acesso ao conteúdo das chamadas e conversas.
Mas deixando um pouquinho a parte técnica de lado; vamos pensar juridicamente: muito se questiona sobre a dualidade entre Direito à Privacidade e Interesse Coletivo; e justamente por isso, devemos ter claro em nossa mente que o aplicativo é uma plataforma de comunicação privada e não um serviço que fornece informação e conteúdo público (como no caso do Google, por exemplo). 


Por isso, não é obrigação da empresa fornecer conteúdo privado (ainda que não houvesse incapacidade técnica) como querem alguns magistrados e o Ministério Público. A depender do caso concreto, se houver determinação judicial, pode ocorrer a busca e apreensão dos dispositivos (celulares, no caso), e aí sim ter-se acesso ao conteúdo buscado. 


Poder-se-ia solicitar colaboração facultativa por parte da empresa, mas não com medida punitiva em caso negativo, como feito com a suspensão dos serviços pelas empresas de telefonia por ordem judicial, sobretudo, ante o fato do próprio aplicativo ainda não ter representação no Brasil, a não ser pelo Facebook.
Aliás, sobre este assunto, a 8.ª Câmara de Direito Privado do TJ-SP (Tribunal de Justiça de São Paulo) recentemente confirmou decisão de primeiro grau, com voto proferido pelo desembargador Salles Rossi no sentido de que o fato de o aplicativo não possuir representação em território nacional não impede o ajuizamento da medida contra o Facebook. “Some-se a isso que serviço do WhatsApp é amplamente difundido no Brasil e, uma vez adquirido pelo Facebook e somente este possuindo representação no país, deve guardar e manter os registros respectivos, propiciando meios para identificação dos usuários e teor de conversas ali inseridas determinação, aliás, que encontra amparo na regra do artigo 13 da lei 12.965/14 (conhecida como Marco Civil da Internet).


De fato, produtos e aplicativos que tem seus serviços disponibilizados a brasileiros, devem adotar e se submeter à legislação pátria, mas isso não significa que seus representantes sejam forçados a responder em caso de má utilização dos serviços por parte dos usuários. Seria o mesmo que responsabilizar as fábricas de facas por todos os crimes cometidos com arma branca. 


A responsabilização é sempre do usuário e não do fornecedor de serviços. Os endereços de IP devem  proporcionar a identificação de autoria para então correto enquadramento legal.  Mas como sabemos, nossa Justicinha ainda está a caminhar com passos lentos para discernir a realidade em muitos casos. Certamente, quem colhe indevidamente os frutos amargos é a população. 


Embora o raciocínio seja exato e silogístico, até que se internalize as mudanças trazidas pela tecnologia, a aplicação da lei e da analogia dela por parte dos magistrados tende a permanecer equivocada. O pior é que nem sempre é falta de fundamentação ou explicação técnica, muitas vezes, trata-se de uma incapacidade de percepção por parte daquela pecinha localizada atrás da caneta, ou do certificado digital… aquela responsável pelas apreciações e decisões em nome do Estado… aquele que muitas vezes, vem com defeito de fábrica e que popularmente chamamos de juiz. (#prestenção…)

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